電腦犯罪刑法規範之研究以二次修正案為中心

A Comparative Study of Two Reenactment of Penal Code on Computer Crime

 

廖有祿

中央警察大學電算中心

ylliaw@mail.cpu.edu.tw

 

金明燦

國防部中部地方軍事法院檢察署

goldming@ms29.hinet.net

 

 

電腦犯罪在刑法規範所歷經的變動,在我國的刑法典上,成為一個特殊的現象。因為刑法中關於電腦犯罪的修正,自民國八十六年九月開始,在之後短短六年間,除了另有民國九十二年較大規模的修正外,其間亦有陸陸續續的修正,其變動之頻繁,由此可見。本文擬從三個方向加以討論,探討二次修法之利弊:一、透過立法政策的比較,瞭解二次修法在立法政策上的差異;二、透過立法程序的比較,分析立法程序在二次修法中所造成之影響;三、透過法律條文的比較,對照二次修法在法律文字使用上之不同,並分析對於電腦犯罪問題有如何因應對策。經過前述三個方向的檢討與比較,二次修法確實有大不同之處,而接下來電腦犯罪之刑法規範該如何的繼續進步,在此謹提出幾點建議:立法目的應明確而一致、立法程序應更講求長遠規劃、外國立法例的參考應該避免差異過大、法律文字的使用應該在易懂與簡潔之間求得平衡、刑罰的輕重應該予以調整、對公務機關從事電腦犯罪之加重處罰應該廢除、國會應該舉辦公聽會發揮專家立法之功能、所保護之法益應更明確。

關鍵詞:電腦犯罪、刑法規範、立法政策、立法程序

 

Abstract

The change of penal code due to computer crime becomes a special phenomenon in our country. The reenactment in penal code on computer crime starts from 1997 to 2003, six-year period. Besides two major reenactments, there are also many changes in separate articles. This study discusses from three facets to evaluate the consequences: legislative policy, legislative procedure, and comparison of enacted articles. From these evaluations, many differences in two reenactments can be discovered. We list several suggestions to make the penal code of computer crime more progressive: the aim of legislation should be clear and coherent, legislative procedure should be long-term planned, the difference of foreign legislation referred should be avoided, the linguistic form of legal terms should be balanced between easy-understanding and conciseness, the punishment should be adjusted appropriately, the aggravate punishment of computer crime to government should be abolished, the hearings should be held to enhance the experts’ function, the legal protection should be more specific.

Keywords: computer crime, penal code, legislative policy, legislative procedure