警察機關刑事偵防績效衡量--DEA與AHP法之應用

Accessing Efficiency of Criminal Investigation and Crime Prevention in Taiwan Police Department:

 An Application of DEA and AHP

 

邢台平

中央警察大學電算中心

大崗村樹人路56

桃園縣龜山鄉

mis249@sun2.cpu.edu.tw

 

 

曾國雄

國立交通大學管理學院科技管理研究所

國家講座教授、國科會「管理類」特約研究員

新竹市大學路1001

ghtzeng@cc.nctu.edu.tw

 

摘要

警察機關過去刑事偵防績效評估之方式有所偏頗,導致目前刑事偵防工作,重偵查而輕預防;故本研究之目的即在建立一套兼顧偵查及預防面的評估模式以改善此狀況。由於資料包絡分析法(DEA)可進行多重投入及產出之相對績效評估,故本研究以此方法來建構刑事偵防績效評估模式。為證明本模式之實用性及有效性,本研究以86年度台灣地區23縣市警察局為研究對象。首先,就所蒐集到的刑事偵防工作之官方資料及問卷調查作為投入產出項,並以此建構兼具主客觀面的DEA評估模式並進行相關分析;除此之外,本研究使用分析層級程序法(AHP),決定各投入產出項之權重,並將此權數之限制,代入原DEA模式中,成為權數設限之DEA模式。本研究所使用之模式除了獲得各警察局的相對績效值,並發現有績效之單位;並發現在權數設限的模式中較原模式大量減少有績效的單位,此修正模式可將原DEA相對效率評估轉換為加入AHP權限的絕對效率DEA評估模式。

關鍵詞:刑事偵防、績效評估、資料包絡分析、分析層級程序法*

 

ABSTRACT

For years, police organizations are in favor of criminal investigation against crime prevention while evaluating their performance efficiency. This misleads to the emphasis on criminal investigation rather than on crime prevention in their activities. Therefore, this paper aims at building a model of assessing efficiency in order to balance both of them. We apply to the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a mathematical programming approach widely used in assessing relative efficiency within a group of Decision Making Units (DMUs), to evaluate the efficiency of criminal investigation and crime prevention among 23 county (or city) police departments in Taiwan in 1997. Several focuses are emphasized in this study. We first show how to use official data and results of questionnaires as input and output to assess efficiency of criminal investigation and crime prevention with DEA, and then combine Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with DEA to set bounds on factor weights of the DEA model. We find that such a model is useful in distinguishing the performance efficiency of the units considered. Furthermore, the method applies to the AHP to set bounds on factor weights in DEA and consequently reduces the number of efficient units. Therefore, we might transfer a relative efficiency assessment model of DEA into a model of absolute efficiencies by using the AHP.

KEYWORDS: Criminal investigation, Crime prevention, Efficiency Assessment, Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA, AHP